INDIAN CIVIL SERVICES EXAMINATIONS
(UPSC) Cell Structure and function
(a) Prokaryote and eukaryote.
(b) Structure of animal cell, structure and
functions of cell organelles.
(c) Cell cycle—mitosis, meiosis.
(d) Structure and contents of nucleus,
including nuclear membrane, structure of chrom
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osome and gene, chemistry of
(e) Mendel’s laws of inheritance, linkage and
genetic recombination; cytoplasmic inheritance.
(f) Function of gene: replication,
transcription and translation; mutations (spontaneous and artificial);
Recombinant DNA: principle and application.
(g) Sex determination in Drosophila and man;
sex linkage in man.
(a) Classification of non-chordates (up to
sub-classes) and chordates (up to orders) giving general features and
evolutionary relationship of the following phyla:
Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nematheliminthes, Annelida,
Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Minor
Phyla (Bryozoa, Phoronida and Chaetognatha) and Hemichordata.
(b) Structure reproduction and life history of
the following types:
Monocystis, Plasmodium, Paramaecium, Sycon, Hydra, Obelia, Fasciola, Taenia,
Ascaris, Neanthes, Pheretima, Hirudinia, Palaemon, Buthus,
Periplaneta, lamellidens, Pila, Asterias and Balanoglossus.
(c) Classification of chordates (up to
orders), giving general features and evolutionary relationship of the
following: Protochordata; Agnatha; Gnathostomata—Pisces,
Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia.
(d) Comparative functional anatomy of the
following based on type animals (Scoliodon,Rana,
Calotes, Columba and Oryctolagus): Integrument and its
derivatives, endoskeleton, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory
system, including heart and aortic arches, urinogenital system; brain and
sense organs (eye and ear); endocrine glands and other hormone producing
structures (Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal,
pancreas, gonads), their function. Vertebrate Physiology and
(a) Chemical composition of protoplasm; nature
and function of enzymes; vitamins, their sources and role; colloids and
hydrogen ion concentration; biological oxidation, electron transport and
role of ATP, energetics, glycolysis, citric acid cycle;
vertebrate hormones: their type, sources and functions; pheromones and their
(b) Neuron and nerve impulse—conduction and
transmission across synapses; neurotransmitters and
their role, including acetyl cholinesterase activity.
(c) Homeostasis; osmoregulation; active
transport and ion pump.
(d) Composition of carbohydrates, fats, lipids
and proteins; steroids.
(a) Gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage;
gastrulation in frog and chick
(b) Metamorphosis in frog and retrogressive
metamorphosis in ascidian; extra embryonic
membranes in chick and mammal; placentation in mammals; Biogenetic law.
(a) Origin of life; principles, theories and
evidences of evolution; species concept.
(b) Zoogeographical realms, insular fauna;
(c) Evolution of man; evolutionary status of
Ecology, Wildlife and Ethology
(a) Abiotic and biotic
factors; concept of ecosystem, food chain and energy flow; adaptation of
aquatic, terrestrial and aerial fauna; intra- and inter-specific animal
relationships; environmental pollution: types, sources, causes,
control and prevention.
(b) Wildlife of
India; endangered species of
India; sanctuaries and national parks of
(c) Biological rhythms.
Beneficial and harmful insects,
including insect vectors of human diseases.
Industrial fish, prawn and molluscs of
poisonous snakes of India.
animals—centipede, wasp, honey bee.
Diseases caused by
aberrant chromosomes/genes in man; genetic counselling; DNA
as a tool for forensic investigation.
PAPER – I Section – A Non-chordata and hordate
(a) Classification and relationship of various
phyla up-to sub-classes; Acoelomata and Coelomata; Protostomes and
Deuterostomes, Bilateralia and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa,
Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.
(b) Protozoa: Locomotion, nutrition,
reproduction; evolution of sex; general features and life
history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium and Leishsmania.
(c) Porifera: Skeleton, canal system and
(d) Coelenterata: Polymorphism, defensive
structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation;
metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.
(e) Platyhelminthes: Parasitic adaptation;
general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their relation
(f) Nemathelminthes: General features, life
history and parasitic adaptation of Ascaris;
nemathelminthes in relation to man.
(g) Annelida: Coelom and metamerism; modes of
life in polychaetes; general features and life history of nereis (Neanthes),
earthworm (Pheretima) and leach (Hirundaria).
(h) Arthropoda: Larval forms and parasitism in
Crustacea; vision and respiration in arthropods (prawn, cockroach and
scorpion); modification of mouth parts in insects
(cockroach, mosquito, housefly, honey bee and butterfly); metamorphosis in
insects and its hormonal regulation; social organization in insects
(termites and honey bees).
(i) Mollusca: Feeding, respiration,
locomotion, shell diversity; general features and life history of
Lamellidens, Pila and Sepia, torsion and detorsion in gastropods.
j) Echinodermata: Feeding respiration,
locomotion larval forms; general features and life history of Asterias.
(k) Protochordata: Origin of chordates;
general features and life history of Banchiostoma and Herdamania.
(l) Pisces: Scales, respiration, locomotion,
(m) Amphibia: Origin of tetrapods; parental
(n) Reptilia: Origin of reptiles; skull types;
status of Sphenodon and crocodiles.
(o) Aves: Origin of birds; flight adaptation,
(p) Mammalia: Origin of mammals; dentition;
general features of egg laying mammals, pouched-mammals,
aquatic mammals and primates; endocrine glands and other hormone producing
structures (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads) and
(q) Comparative functional anatomy of various
systems of vertebrates (integument and its derivatives,
endoskeleton, locomotory organs, digestive system, respiratory system,
circulatory system, including heart and aortic arches; urino-genital
system, brain and sense organs (eye and ear).
Section – B Ecology
(a) Biosphere: Biogeochemical cycles,
green-houses effect, ozone layer and its impact; ecological
succession, biomes and ecotones.
(b) Population, characteristics, population
dynamics, population stabilization.
(c) Conservation of natural resources mineral
mining, fisheries, aquaculture; forestry; grassland; wildlife (Project
Tiger); sustainable production in agriculture—integrated pest management.
(d) Environmental biodegradation; pollution
and its impact on biosphere and its prevention.
(a) Behaviour: Sensory
filtering, responsiveness, sign stimuli, learning, instinct,
habituation, conditioning, imprinting.
(b) Role of hormones in drive; role of
pheromones in alarm spreading; crypsis, predator detection, predator
tactics, social behaviour in insects and primates, courtship (Drosophila,
3-spine stickleback fish and birds).
(c) Orientation, navigation, homing;
biological rhythms; biological clock, tidal, seasonal
and circadian rhythms.
(d) Methods of studying animal behaviour.
(a) Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp
culture, pearl culture, prawn culture.
(b) Major infectious and communicable diseases
(small pox, plague, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera and
AIDS) their vectors, pathogens and prevention.
(c) Cattle and livestock diseases, their
pathogens (helminths) and vectors (ticks, mites, Tabanus, Stomoxys).
d) Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla perpusilla),
oil seed (Achaea janata) and rice (Sitophilus
Designing of experiments; null hypothesis;
correlation, regression, distribution and measure of central tendency, chi
square, student t-test, F-test (one-way & two- way
(a) Structure and function of cell and its
organelles (nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi bodies,
endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and lysosomes), cell
division (mitosis and meiosis), mitotic spindle and mitotic apparatus,
(b) Watson-Crick model of DNA, replication of
DNA, protein synthesis, transcription and transcription
(a) Gene structure and functions; genetic
(b) Sex chromosomes and sex determination in
Drosophilla, nematodes and man.
(c) Mendel’s laws of inheritance,
recombination, linkage, linkage-maps, multiple alleles, cistron concept;
genetics of blood groups.
(d) Mutations and mutagenesis: radiation and
(e) Cloning technology, plasmids and cosmids
as vectors, transgenics, transposons, DNA
sequence cloning and whole animal cloning (Principles and methodology).
(f) Regulation and gene expression in pro-and
(g) Signal transduction; pedigree analysis;
congenital diseases in man.
(h) Human genome mapping; DNA finger printing.
(a) Origin of life.
(b) Natural selection, role of mutation in
evolution, mimicry, variation, isolation, speciation.
(c) Fossils and fossilization; evolution of
horse, elephant and man.
(d) Hardy-Weinberg law, causes of change in
(e) Continental drift and distribution of
Zoological nomenclature; international
Section – B
(a) Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats,
lipids, proteins, aminoacids, nucleic acids; saturated and unsaturated fatty
(b) Glycolysis and Krebs cycle, oxidation and
reduction, oxidative phosphorylation; energy conservation and release, ATP,
cyclic AMP - its structure and role.
(c) Hormone classification (steroid and
peptide hormones), biosynthesis and function.
(d) Enzymes: types and mechanisms of action;
immunoglobulin and immunity; vitamins and co-enzymes.
Physiology (with special reference to
(a) Composition and constituents of blood;
blood groups and Rh factor in man; coagulation, factors and mechanism of
coagulation; acid-base balance, thermoregulation.
(b) Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport;
haemoglobin: constituents and role in regulation.
(c) Nutritive requirements; role of salivary
glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands in
digestion and absorption.
(d) Excretory products; nephron and regulation
of urine formation; osmoregulation.
(e) Types of muscles, mechanism of contraction
of skeletal muscles.
(f) Neuron, nerve impulse—its conduction and
synaptic transmission; neurotransmitters.
(g) Vision, hearing and olfaction in man.
(h) Mechanism of hormone action.
(i) Physiology of reproduction, role of
hormones and pheromones.
(a) Differentiation from gamete to neurula
stage; dedifferentiation; metaplasia, induction,
morphogenesis and morphogen; fate maps of gastrulae in frog and
chick; organogenesis of eye and heart, placentation in mammals.
(b) Role of cytoplasm in and genetic control
of development; cell lineage; causation of metamorphosis
in frog and insects; paedogenesis and neoteny; growth, degrowth and cell
death; ageing; blastogenesis; regeneration; teratogenesis; neoplasia.
(c) Invasiveness of placenta; in vitro
fertilization; embryo transfer, cloning.
(d) Baer’s law; evo-devo concept.