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Home » IAS Exam Subjects » Civil Services Syllabus » Statistics

Statistics - Optional




Random experiment, sample space, event, algebra of events, probability on a discrete sample space, basic theorems of probability and simple examples based there on, conditional probability of an event, independent events, Bayes theorem and its application, discrete and continuous random variables and their distributions, expectation, m

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oments, moment generating function, joint distribution of two or more random variables, marginal and conditional distributions, independence of random variables, covariance, correlation, coefficient, distribution of function of random variables. Bernoulli, binomial, geometric, negative binomial, hypergeometric, Poisson, multinomial, uniform, beta, exponential, gamma, Cauchy, normal, longnormal and bivariate normal distributions, real-life situations where these distributions provide appropriate models, Chebyshevs inequality, weak law of large numbers and central limit theorem for independent and identically distributed random variables with finite variance and their simple applications.

Statistical Methods

Concept of a statistical population and a sample, types of data, presentation and summarization of data, measures of central tendency, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, measures of association and contingency, correlation, rank correlation, intraclass correlation, correlation ratio, simple and multiple linear regression, multiple and partial correlations (involving three variables only), curve-fitting and principle of least squares, concepts of random sample, parameter and statistic, Z, X2, t and F statistics and their properties and applications, distributions of sample range and median (for continuous distributions only), censored sampling (concept and illustrations).

Statistical Inference

Unbiasedness, consistency, efficiency, sufficiency, Completeness, minimum variance unbiased estimation, Rao-Blackwell theorem, Lehmann-Scheffe theorem, Cramer-Rao inequality and minimum variance bound estimator, moments, maximum likelihood, least squares and minimum chisquare methods of estimation, properties of maximum likelihood and other estimators, idea of a random interval, confidence intervals for the paramters of standard distributions, shortest confidence intervals, large-sample confidence intervals.

Simple and composite hypotheses, two kinds of errors, level of significance, size and power of a test, desirable properties of a good test, most powerful test, Neyman-Pearson lemma and its use in simple example, uniformly most powerful test, likelihood ratio test and its properties and applications.

Chi-square test, sign test, Wald-Wolfowitz runs test, run test for randomness, median test, Wilcoxon test and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test.

Wals sequential probability ratio test, OC and ASN functions, application to binomial and normal distributions.

Loss function, risk function, minimax and Bayes rules.

Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments

Complete enumeration vs. sampling, need for sampling, basic concepts in sampling, designing large-scale sample surveys, sampling and non-sampling errors, simple random sampling, properties of a good estimator, estimation of sample size, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling, cluster sampling, ratio and regression methods of estimaton under simple and stratified random sampling, double sampling for ratio and regression methods of estimation, two-stage sampling with equal-size first-stage units.

Analysis of variance with equal number of observations per cell in one, two and three-way classifications, analysis of covariance in one and two-way classifications, basic priniciples of experimental designs, completely randomized design, randomized block design, latin square design, missing plot technique, 2n factorial design, total and partial confounding, 32 factorial experiments, split-plot design and balanced incomplete block design.



Probability :

Sample space and events, probability measure and probability space, random variable as a measurable function, distribution function of a random variable, discrete and continuous-type random variable probability mass function, probability density function, vector-valued random variable, marginal and conditional distributions, stochastic independence of events and of random variables, expectation and moments of a random variable, conditional expectation, convergence of a sequence of random variable in distribution, in probability, in p-th mean and almost everywhere, their criteria and inter-relations, Borel-Cantelli lemma, Chebyshev’s and Khinchine‘s weak laws of large numbers, strong law of large numbers and kolmogorov’s theorems, Glivenko-Cantelli theorem, probability generating function, characteristic function, inversion theorem, Laplace transform, related uniqueness and continuity theorems, determination of distribution by its moments. Linderberg and Levy forms of central limit theorem, standard discrete and continuous probability distributions, their inter-relations and limiting cases, simple properties of finite Markov chains.

Statistical Inference

Consistency, unbiasedness, efficiency, sufficiency, minimal sufficiency, completeness, ancillary statistic, factorization theorem, exponential family of distribution and its properties, uniformly minimum variance unbiased (UMVU) estimation, Rao-Blackwell and Lehmann-Scheffe theorems, Cramer-Rao inequality for single and several-parameter family of distributions, minimum variance bound estimator and its properties, modifications and extensions of Cramer-Rao inequality, Chapman-Robbins inequality, Bhattacharyya’s bounds, estimation by methods of moments, maximum likelihood, least squares, minimum chi-square and modified minimum chi-square, properties of maximum likelihood and other estimators, idea of asymptotic efficiency, idea of prior and posterior distributions, Bayes estimators.

Non-randomised and randomised tests, critical function, MP tests, Neyman-Pearson lemma, UMP tests, monotone likelihood ratio, generalised Neyman-Pearson lemma, similar and unbiased tests, UMPU tests for single and several-parameter families of distributions, likelihood rotates and its large sample properties, chi-square goodness of fit test and its asymptotic distribution.

Confidence bounds and its relation with tests, uniformly most accurate (UMA) and UMA unbiased confidence bounds.

Kolmogorov’s test for goodness of fit and its consistency, sign test and its optimality. wilcoxon signed-ranks test and its consistency, Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test, run test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and median test, their consistency and asymptotic normality.

Wald’s SPRT and its properties, OC and ASN functions, Wald’s fundamental identity, sequential estimation.

Linear Inference and Multivariate Analysis

Linear statistical models’, theory of least squares and analysis of variance, Gauss-Markoff theory, normal equations, least squares estimates and their precision, test of signficance and interval estimates based on least squares theory in one-way, two-way and three-way classified data, regression analysis, linear regression, curvilinear regression and orthogonal polynomials, multiple regression, multiple and partial correlations, regression diagnostics and sensitivity analysis, calibration problems, estimation of variance and covariance components, MINQUE theory, multivariate normal distribution, Mahalanobis;’ D2 and Hotelling’s T2 statistics and their applications and properties, discrimi nant analysis, canonical correlatons, one-way MANOVA, principal component analysis, elements of factor analysis.

Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments

An outline of fixed-population and super-population approaches, distinctive features of finite population sampling, probability sampling designs, simple random sampling with and without replacement, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling and its efficacy for structural populations, cluster sampling, two-stage and multi-stage sampling, ratio and regression, methods of estimation involving one or more auxiliary variables, two-phase sampling, probability proportional to size sampling with and without replacement, the Hansen-Hurwitz and the Horvitz-Thompson estimators, non-negative variance estimation with reference to the Horvitz-Thompson estimator, non-sampling errors, Warner’s randomised response technique for sensitive characteristics.

Fixed effects model (two-way classification) random and mixed effects models (two-way classification per cell), CRD, RBD, LSD and their analyses, incomplete block designs, concepts of orthogonality and balance, BIBD, missing plot technique, factorial designs : 2n, 32 and 33, confounding in factorial experiments, split-plot and simple lattice designs.


I. Industrial Statistics

Process and product control, general theory of control charts, different types of control charts for variables and attributes, X, R, s, p, np and c charts, cumulative sum chart, V-mask, single, double, multiple and sequential sampling plans for attributes, OC, ASN, AOQ and ATI curves, concepts of producer’s and consumer’s risks, AQL, LTPD and AOQL, sampling plans for variables, use of Dodge-Romig and Military Standard tables.

Concepts of reliability, maintainability and availability, reliability of series and parallel systems and other simple configurations, renewal density and renewal function, survival models (exponential), Weibull, lognormal, Rayleigh, and bath-tub), different types of redundancy and use of redundancy in reliability improvement,

problems in life-testing, censored and truncated experiments for exponential models.

II. Optimization Techniques

Different, types of models in Operational Research, their construction and general methods of solution, simulation and Monte-Carlo methods, the structure and formulation of linear programming (LP) problem, simple LP model and its graphical solution, the simplex procedure, the two-phase method and the M-technique with artificial variables, the duality theory of LP and its economic interpretation, sensitivity analysis, transportation and assignment problems, rectangular games, two-person zero-sum games, methods of solution (graphical and algerbraic).

Replacement of failing or deteriorating items, group and individual replacement policies, concept of scientific inventory management and analytical structure of inventory problems, simple models with deterministic and stochastic demand with and without lead time, storage models with particular reference to dam type.

Homogeneous discrete-time Markov chains, transition probability matrix, classification of states and ergodic theorems, homogeneous continous-time Markov chains, Poisson process, elements of queueing theory, M/M/1, M/M/K, G/M/1 and M/G/1 queues.

Solution of statistical problems on computers using well known statistical software packages like SPSS.

III. Quantitative Economics and Official Statistics

Determination of trend, seasonal and cyclical components, Box-Jenkins method, tests for stationery of series, ARIMA models and determination of orders of autoregressive and moving average components, forecasting.

Commonly used index numbers-Laspeyres, Paashes and Fishers ideal index numbers, chain-base index number uses and limitations of index numbers, index number of wholesale prices, consumer price index number, index numbers of agricultural and industrial production, test for index numbers like proportionality test, time-reversal test, factor-reversal test, circular test and dimensional invariance test.

General linear model, ordinary least squares and generalised least squires methods of estimation, problem of multicollinearlity, consequences and solutions of multicollinearity, autocorrelation and its consequeces, heteroscedasticity of disturbances and its testing, test for independe of disturbances, Zellners seemingly unrelated regression equation model and its estimation, concept of structure and model for simulaneous equations, problem of identification-rank and order conditions of identifiability, two-stage least squares method of estimation.

Present official statistical system in India relating to population, agriculture, industrial production, trade and prices, methods of collection of official statistics, their reliability and limitation and the principal publications containing such statistics, various official agencies responsible for data collection and their main functions.

IV. Demography and Psychometry

Demographic data from census, registration, NSS and other surveys, and their limitation and uses, definition, construction and uses of vital rates and ratios, measures of fertility, reproduction rates, morbidity rate, standardized death rate, complete and abridged life tables, construction of life tables from vital statistics and census returns, uses of life tables, logistic and other population growth curves, fifting a logistic curve, population projection, stable population quasi-stable population techniques in estimation of demographic parameters, morbidity and its measurement, standard classification by cause of death, health surveys and use of hospital statistics.

Methods of standardisation of scales and tests, Z-scores, standard scores, T-scores, percentile scores, intelligence quotient and its measurement and uses, validity of test scores and its determination, use of factor analysis and path analysis in psychometry.

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