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Home » IAS Exam Subjects » Civil Services Syllabus » Geology

Geology - Optional

A D V E R T I S E M E N T
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preliminary

Part-I

(a) General Geology : Solar System. The Earth : its origin, age and internal constitution. Volcanoes-types, distribution geological effects and products. Earthquakes-intensity, magnitude, distribution, causes and effects. Elementary ideas about isostasy, geosynclines, mountain building, continental drift, sea floor spreading and plate

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A D V E R T I S E M E N T

tectonics.

(b) Geomorphology : Basic concepts. External and internal processes. Rock weathering. Cycle of erosion. Fluvial landforms and drainage patterns. Landforms of aeolian, marine, glacial and Karst landscapes. Elements of Remote Sensing.

(c) Structural and field Geology : Primary and secondary structures. Dip and strike of beds. Unconformities. Study of folds, joints, faults, foliation and lineations. Overthrusts and nappe structures. Stages of rock deformation. Construction of block diagrams. Stereographic and equal-area nets. Solutions of simple problems by stereographic net.

Topographic maps and their interpretation. Use of clinometer compass in the field Measurements of bed, foliation, folds joints, faults and lineations in the field. Principles of geological mapping. Effects of topography on outcrops. Drawing of sections.

Part-II

(a) Crystallography : Elements of crystal structure. Laws of crystallography, Symmetry elements of normal classes of seven crystal systems.

Properties and interaction of light and crystalline matter. Petrological microscope and accessories. Construction and use of Nicole prism. Pleochroism, double refraction, extinction angle, birefringence and twinning in crystals, Isotropic, uniaxial and biaxial minerals.

(b) Mineralogy : Physical, chemical and optical properties of the following common rock forming minerals: quartz, feldspar, mica, pyroxene, amphibole, olivine, garnet, chlorite, carbonates, aluminosilicates. Structure of silicates and crystal chemistry of minerals. Gemstones.

(c) Economic Geology :Ore, ore mineral and gangue. Classification of ore deposits. Important processes of their formation. Occurrence, origin and distribution in India of the ores of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, lead, zinc, iron, manganese and radioactive elements. Deposits of minerals use as abrasives, refractories and in ceramics, deposits of coal and petroleum. Elements of prospecting for mineral deposits.

Part -III

(a) Igneous Petrology :Origin of magma and formation of igneous rocks. Bowens reaction principle. Crystallisation of binary systems. Classification of igneous rocks. Textures and structures of igneous rocks. Composition, origin and mode of occurrence of granite, syenite, diorite, mafic and ultramafic groups, anorthosites and alkaline rocks.

(b) Sedimentary Petrology : Sedimentary process and products. Classification of sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary structures. Residual deposits - their mode of formation, chacteristics and types, Clastic deposits- their classification, mineral composition and texture. Elementary ideas about the origin and characteristics of quartz arenites, arkoses and graywackes. Siliceous and calcareous deposits of chemical and organic origin.

(c) Metamorphic Petrology :Types and factors of metamorphism. Zones, grades and facies of metamorphism. Regional and contact metamorphism. Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism of argillaceous, arenaceous, calcareous and basic rocks. Metasomatism.

Part-IV

(a) Paleontology :Habits and habitats of animals. Fossils and fossilization. Modes of preservation. Application of fossils, Study of morphology and geological history of Foraminiferida, Brachipoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Echinoidea and Anthozoa.

Mammals of Siwalik Group. A brief study of Gondwana flora.

(b) Stratigraphy and Geology of India :Fundamental laws of stratigraphy. Stratigraphic classification lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic. Geological time scale.

Physiographic divisions and outline of stratigraphy of India. Brief study of Dharwar, Vindhyan and Gondwana Supergroups and Siwalik Group with reference to their major subdivisions, lithology, fossils, areal distribution and economic importance.

Mains

Paper-1 Section-A

(i) General Geology

The Solar System, meteorities, origin and interior of the earth. Radioactivity and age of earth; Volcanoes- causes and products, volcanic belts. Earthquakes-causes, effects, earthquake belts, seismicity of India, intensity and magnitude, seismongraphs. Island arcs, deep sea trenches and mid-ocean ridges. Continental drift-evidences and mechanics; seafloor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy, orogeny and epeirogeny. Continents and oceans.

(ii) Geomorphology and Remote Sensing

Basic concepts of geomorphology. Weathering and mass wasting. Landforms, slopes and drainage. Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation. Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology. Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering,. hydrology and environmental studies. Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent.

Aerial photographs and their interpretation-mertis and limitations. The Electronmagnetic Spectrum. Orbiting satellites and sensor systems. Indian Remote Sensing Sataellites. Satellites data products. Applications of remote sensing in geology. The Geographic Information System and its applications. Global Positioning System.

(iii) Structural geology

Priniples of geologic mapping and map reading, projection diagrams, stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials. Strain markers in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions. Folds and faults classification and mechanics. Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities. Superposed deformation. Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation. Introduction to petrofabrics.

Section-B

(iv) Paleontology

Species- definition and nomenclature. Megafossils and Microfossils. Modes of preservation of fossils. Different kinds of microfossils. Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies. Morphology, geological history and evolutionary trend in Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Brachiopoda, Echinoidea and Anthozoa. Stratigraphic utility of Ammonoidea, Trilobita and Graptoloidea. Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae. Siwalik fauna. Gondwana flora and its importance.

(v) Stratigraphy and Geology of India

Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chro-nostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships. Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India. Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance. Major boundary problems- Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene. Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past. Tectonic framework of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.

(vi) Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology : Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water. Movement of subsruface water. Springs. Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers. Water-bearing characteristics of rocks. Groundwater chemistry. Salt water intrusion. Types of wells. Drainage basin morphometry. Exploration for groundwater. Groundwater recharge. Problems and management of groundwater. Rainwater harvesting. Engineering properties of rocks. Geological investigations for dams, tunnels and bridges. Rock as construction material. Alkali-aggregate reaction. Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation. Earthquake-resistant structures.

Paper-II Section-A

(i) Mineralogy

Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry. International system of crystallographic notation. Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry. Crystal defects. Elements of X-ray crystallography.

Petrological microscope and accessories. Optical properties of common rock forming minerals. Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.

Physical and chemical characters of rock forming slilicate mineral groups. Structural classification of silicates. Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups.

(ii) Igneous ad Metamorphic Petrology

Generation and crystallisation of magma. Crystallisation of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and diopside-wollastonite-silica systems. Reaction principle., Magmatic differentation and assimilation. Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structrues of igneous rocks. Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province.

Types and agents of metamporphism. Metamporphic grdes and zones. Phase rule. Facies of regional and contact metamorphism. ACF and AKF diagrams. Textures and structures of metamporphic rocks. Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks. Minerals assemblages Retrograde metamorphism. Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.

(iii) Sedimentology

Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation. diagenesis and lithification. Properties of sediments. Clastic and non-clastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment. Sedimentary facies and provenance. Sedimentary structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their significance. Sedminetary basins of India.

Section-B

(iv) Economic Geology

Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits. Process of formation of minerals deposits. Controls of ore localisation. Ore textures and structures. Metallogenic epochs and provinces. Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals. Deposits of coal and petroleum in India. National Mineral Policy. Conservation and utilization of mineral resources. Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.

(v) Mining Geology

Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical. Techniques of sampling. Estimation of reserves or ore. Mehtods of exploration and mining metallic ores, industrial minerals and marine mineral resources. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.

(vi) Geochemistry and Environmental Geology

Cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites. Structure and compostion of earth and distribution of elements. Trace elements. Elements of crystal chemistry-types of chemical bonds, coordination number. Isolmorphism and polymorphism. Elementary thermodynamics.

Natural hazards-floods, landslides, coastal erosion, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation. Environmental impact of urbanization, open cast mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution Environment protection-legislative measures in India.




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