1. Cell Biology :
Structure and function of cell wall (extracellular matrix or ECM), cell membrane
and cell organelles. Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex (NPC), chromosome
and nucleosome. Mitosis, meiosis, molecular control involving checkpoints in
cell division cycle. Differentiation, cellular senescence.
2. Genetics, Molecular Bi
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and Biotechnology : Laws of inheritance. Concept of gene and allelomorph.
Linkage, crossing over and gene mapping. Structural and numerical changes in
chromosomes and gene mutations. Sex determination and differentiation. Structure
and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Genetic code. Regulation of gene
expression. Genetic engineering and crop improvement. Protoplast, cell, tissue
and organ cultures. Somatic hybridization. Biofertilizers and biopesticides.
Biotechnology in agri-horticulture, medicine and industry.
3. Tissue Systems :
Origin, development, structure and function of primary and secondary tissues.
4. Plant Diversity and
Systematics : Structure and function of plant forms from evolutionary
aspects (viruses to Angiosperms including fossils). Principles of nomenclature,
classification and identification of plants. Modern approaches in plant
taxonomy. Recent classification of living organism into three groups (bacteria,
archaea and eukarya).
5. Plant Physiology: Water
relations. Mineral nutrition. Photosynthesis. Respiration. Nitrogen metabolism.
Enzymes and coenzymes. Dynamics of growth, growth movements, growth substances,
photomorphogenesis. Secondary metabolites. Isotopes in biological studies.
Physiology of flowering.
6. Methods of Reproduction and
Seed Biology : Vegetative, asexual and sexual methods of reproduction.
Pollination and fertilization. Sexual incompatibility. Development, structure,
dormancy and germination of seed.
7. Plant Pathology :
Diseases of rice, wheat, sugarcane, potato, mustard, groundnut and cotton crops.
Factors affecting infection (host factors, pathogen factors, biotic factors like
rhizosphere and phyllosphere organisms). Chemical, biological and genetic
methods of disease control (including transgenic plants).
8. Plant and Environment :
Biotic and abiotic components. Ecological adaptation. Types of vegetational
zones and forests of India. Deforestation, afforestation, social forestry and
plant introduction. Soil erosion, wasteland, reclamation. Environmental
pollution and its control (including phytoremediation). Bioindicators. Global
9. Biodiversity, Plant Genetic
Resources: Methods of conservation of plant genetic resources and its
importance. Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD). Endangered, threatened and
endemic taxa. Role of cell/tissue culture in propagation and enrichment of
genetic diversity. Plants as sources of food, fodder, forage, fibres, oils,
drugs, wood and timber, paper, rubber, beverages, spices, essential oils and
resins, gums, dyes, insecticides, pesticides and ornamentation. Biomass as a
source of energy.
10. Origin of Life and
Evolution: Basic concepts of origin of earth and origin of life. Theories of
organic evolution, molecular basis of evolution.
1. Microbiology and Plant
Pathology: Viruses, bacteria, and plasmids-structure and reproduction.
General account of infection, Phytoimmunology. Applications of microbiology in
agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control in air, soil and water.
Important plant diseases caused
by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes. Mode of infection and
dissemination. Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence.
Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins.
2. Cryptogams: Algae,
Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes-structure and reproduction from evolutionary
viewpoint. Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their economic potential.
3. Phanerogams: Gymnosperms:
Concept of Progymonosperms. Classification and distribution of Gymnosperms.
Salient features of Cycadales, Conferrals and Gnetales, their structures and
reproduction. General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales.
anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny.
Comparative account of various
systems of Angiosperm Classiification. Study of angiospermic
families–Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae (Cruci-ferae), Rosaceae,
Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocar-paceae, Apiaceae
(Umbelliferae), Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solana-ceae, Rubiaceae,
Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae (Composite), Poaceae (Gramineae), Arecaceae (Palmae),
Liliaceae, Musaceae, Orchidaceae.
Stomata and their types.
Anomalous secondary growth, Anatomy of C 3 and C 4 plants.
Development of male and female
gametophytes, pollination, fertilization. Endosperm–its development and
function. Patterns of embryo development. Polymbryony, apoxmix, Applications of
4. Plant Utility and Exploitation:
Origin of cultivated plants,
Vavilovs centres of origin. Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices,
beverages, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes.
Latex, cellulose Starch and their
products. Perfumery. Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context. Energy
plantation. Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.
Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation. Cell, tissue, organ and
protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids.
PAPER-II1. Cell Biology:
Techniques of Cell Biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells -structural and
ultrastructural details. Structure and function of extracellular matrix or ECM
(cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular
transport. Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts,
mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes, hydrogenosome).
Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex. Chromatin and nucleosome. Cell
signalling and cell receptors. Signal transduction (G-1 proteins, etc.). Mitosis
and meisdosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical and structural
variations in chromosomes and their significance. Study of polytene, lampbrush
and B-chromosomes–structure, behaviour and significance.
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology
and Evolution: Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles).
Quantitative genetics and multiple factors. Linkage and crossing over–methods of
gene mapping including molecular maps (idea of mapping function). Sex
chromosomes and sexlinked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of
sex differentiation. Mutation (biochemical and molecular basis). Cytoplasmic
inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility). Prions
and prion hypothesis.
Structure and synthesis of
nucleic acids and protines. Genetic code and regulation of gene expression.
mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.
3. Plant Breeding,
Biotechnology and Biostatistics: Methods of plant breeding -- introduction,
selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method).
Male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixis in plant breeding.
Micropropagation and genetic engineering–methods of transfer of genes and
transgenic crops; development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding.
Standard deviation and
coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and
chi-square tests). Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson
distributions). Correlation and regression.
4. Physiology and
Biochemistry: Water relations, Mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral
deficiencies. Photosynthesis–photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and
carbon pathways including C pathway (photorespiration), C, C and CAM pathways.
Respiraion (anaerobic and aerobic, including fermentation–electron transport
chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis.
Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes, energy transfer
and energy conservation. Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as
photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome). Photoperiodism and
flowering, vernalization, senescence. Growth substances-their chemical nature,
role and applications in agri-horticulture, growth indices, growth movements.
Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal). Fruit and seed physiology.
Dormancy, storage and germination of seed. Fruit ripening -- its molecular basis
5. Ecology and Plant
Geography: Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community. Plant
succession. Concepts of biosphere. Ecosystems and their conservation. Pollution
and its control (including phytoremediaion).
Forest types of India --
afforestation, deforestation and social forestry. Endangered plants, endemism
and Red Data Books. Biodiversity. Convention of Biological Diversity, Sovereign
Rights and Intellectual Property Rights. Biogeochemical cells. Global warming.