1.2 Relationship with other disciplines: History, Economics, Sociology,
Psychology, Political Science, Life Science, Medical Science.
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance
a) Social-cultural Anthropology
b) Physical and biological Anthropology
c) Archaeological Anthropol
(more content follows the advertisement below) A D V E R T I S E M E N T
1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man.
Organic Evolution-Theories of evolution in historical perspective,
pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian period. Modern synthetic theory of
evolution; brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Dolls
rule, Copes rule, Gauses rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation,
mosaic evolution); Principles of systematics and taxonomy, major primate taxa,
tertiary and quaternary fossil primates, Systematics of Hominoidea and Hominidae,
Origin and evolution of man-Homo erectus and Homo sapiens.
1.5 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and distribution of the following:
a) Prepleistocence fossil primates-Oreopithecus.
b) South and East African hominids-Plesianthropus/Australopithecus Africaus,
c) Paranthropus-Homo erectus-Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus
Recent advances in understanding the evolution, distribution and
multidisciplinary approach to understand a fossil type in relation to others.
1.6 Evolutionary trend and classification of the order Primates, Relationship
with other mammals, molecular evolution of Primates, Comparative anatomy of man
and apes, primate locomotion;-terrestrial and arboreal adaptation, skeletal
changes due to erect posture and its implications.
1.7 Cultural Evolution-broad outlines of pre-historic cultures:
e) Copper-Bronze age
f) Iron age
2.1 Family-Definition and typology of family, household and domestic groups.
Basic structure and functions; stability and changes in family. Typological and
processual approaches to the study of family. Impact of urbanization,
industrialization, education and feminist movements. Universality of family-a
2.2 Concept of kinship : Definition of kin, incest prohibition exogamy
and endogamy. Principles of descent-types and functions. Political and jural
aspects of kinship. Unilineal, bilateral and double descent. Descent, filiation
and complementary filiation. Kinship terminology, typology and approaches to the
study of terminology Alliance and descent.
2.3 Marriage -Definition, types and variation of marriage systems. Debates on
the universal definition of marriage. Regulation of marriage-preferential,
prescriptive, proscriptive and open systems. Types and form of marriage Dowry,
bride-price, pestation and marriage stability.
3.1 Study of culture, patterns and processes. Concept of culture, patterns of
culture, relationships between culture and civilization and society.
3.2 Concept of Social Change and Cultural Change:
3.3 Social structure and social organization, Role-analysis and social
network. Institutions, groups community. Social stratification: principles and
form, status, class and power, gender. Nature and types of mobility.
3.4 Concept of Society.
3.5 Approaches to the study of culture and society-classical evolutionism,
neo-evolutionism, culture ecology, historical particularism and diffusionism,
structural-functionalism, culture and personality, transaction-alism, symbolism,
congnitive approach and new ethnography, post structuralism and post-modernism.
4.1 Definitions and functions of religion. Anthropological approaches to the
study of religion-evolutionary, psychological and functional. Magic, witchcraft
and sorcery; definitions and functions and functionaries: priest, saman,
medicine man and sorcerers. Symbolism in religion and rituals. Ethnomedicine.
Myths and rituals: definitions and approaches to their study-structural,
functional and processual Relation with economic and political structures.
5.1 Meaning, scope and relevance, principles governing production,
distribution and consumption in communities subsisting on hunting-gathering,
fishing, pastoralism, horticulture and other economic pursuits. Fomalist and
substantivist debate-Dalton, Karl-polyanny and Marx approach and New Economic
Anthropology. Exchange: gifts, barter, trade, ceremonial exchange and market
5.2 Theoretical foundations. Types of political organisations-band, tribe,
chiefdom, state, concept of power, authority and legitimacy. Social control, law
and justice in tribal and peasant societies.
6.1 Concepts of developmental Anthropological perspective. Models of
development. Critiques of classical developmental theories. Concepts of planning
and planned development. Concept of participatory development. Culture ecology
and sustainable development. Displacement and rehabilitation.
7.1 Concept of research in anthroplogy, subjectivity and reflexivity in terms
of gender class, ideology and ethics. Distinction between methodology, methods
and techniques. Nature and explanation in anthropological research.
Positivistics and non-positivistic approaches. Comparative methods; nature,
purpose and methods of comparison in social and cultural anthroplogy. Basic
techniques of data collection. Interview, participant and other forms of
observation, schedules, questionnaire, case-study methods, extended casestudy
methods, life histories and seconday sources, oral history, genealogical method,
participatory, learning and assessment (PLA). Participatory rapid assessment
(PRA). Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
8.1 Concept, scope and major branches of human genetics. Its relationship
with other branches of science and medicine.
8.2 Method for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedegree
analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method,
chromosomal and karyotype analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods,
D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
8.3 Twin study method-zygosity, heritability estimates, present status of the
twin study method and its applications.
8.4 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor,
lethal, sub-lethal, and polygenic inheritance in man.
8.5 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population,
Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation,
isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous
and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous
and cousin marriages (statistical and probability methods for study of human
8.6 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders)
b) Sex chromosomal aberrations-Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female
(XXX), intersex, and other syndromic disorders.
c) Autosomal aberrations-Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat
d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counselling,
human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
8.7 Concept of race in histrogical and biological perspective. Race and
racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and metric
characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and
environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation
and race-crossing in man.
8.8 Ethnic groups of mankind-characteristics and distribution in world,
racial classification of human groups. Principal living peoples of world. Their
distribution and characterisicts.
8.9 Age, sex and population variation in gentic marker-ABO, Rh blood groups,
HLA, Hp, transferrin, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level,
body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different
cultural and socio-economic groups. Impact of smoking air pollutions,
alcoholism, drugs and occupational hazards on health.
9.1 Concepts and Methods of Ecological Anthropology. Adaptation-social and
cultural Deterministic theories-a critique. Resources-biological, non-biological
and sustainable development. Biological adaptation-climatic, environmental,
nutritional and genetic.
10.1 Relevance in understanding of contemporary society. Dynamics of
ethnicity at rural, tribal, urban and international levels. Ethric conflicts and
political developments. Concept of ethnic boundaries. Ethnicity and concept of
11.1 Concept of human growth and development-stages of growth-prenatal,
natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.
Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical,
nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.
- Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations-biological and
chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for
12.1 Reproductive biology, demography and population study. Reproductive
physiology of male and female. Biological aspects of human fertility. Relevance
of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertily patterns and
12.2 Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural.
12.4 Population structures and population dynamics.
12.5 Demographic rates and ratios, life table-structure and utility.
12.6 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility
natality and mortality.
12.7 Methods of studying population growth.
12.8 Biological consequences of population control and family welfare.
13.1 Anthropology of sports
13.2 Nutritional Anthropology.
13.3 Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments.
13.4 Forensic Anthropology.
13.5 Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction.
13.6 Applied human genetics-Paternity diagnosis genetic counselling and
13.7 DNA technology-prevention and cure of diseases.
13.8 Anthropo-gentics in medicine
13.9 Serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
13.10 Application of statistical principles in human genetics and Physical
1. Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization-Pre historic
(Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization).
Vedic and post-Vedic beginnings. Contributions of the tribal cultures.
2. Demographic profile of India-Ethinic and linguistic elements in the Indian
population and their distribution. Indian population, factors influencing its
structure and growth.
3. The basic structure and nature of traditional Indian social system-a
critique. Varnasharam, Purushartha, Karma,
Rina and Rebirth. Theories on the origin of caste system, Jajmani system.
Structural basis of inequality in traditional Indian society. Impact of
Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.
4. Emergence, growth and development of anthropology in India-contributions
of the 19th Century and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions
of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies. Contemporary nature of
anthropological studies in India.
5. Approaches to the study of Indian society and culture-traditional and
5.1 Aspects of Indian village-Social organisations of agriculture, impact of
market economy on Indian villages.
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities-social, political and economic
6. Tribal situation in India-biogenetic variability, linguistic and
socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution.
Problems of the tribal Communities-land alienation, poverty indebtedness, low
literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and
nutrition. Developmental projects-tribal displacement and problems of
Development of forest policy and tribals, Impact of urbanisation and
industrialization on tribal and rural populations.
7. Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes/Scheduled
Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled
Tribes and Scheduled Castes. Social change and contemporary tribal societies:
Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare
measures on tribals and weaker sections. Emergence of ethnicity, tribal
movements and quest for identity. Pseudo-tribalism.
8. Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.
8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and other religious on tribal
8.2 Tribe and nation state-a comparative study of tribal communities in India
and other countries.
9. History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans,
programmes of tribal development and their implementation. Role of N.G.Os.
9.1 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
9.2 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism,
communalism and ethnic and political movements.