1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology:
Viruses, bacteria, and plasmids-structure and
reproduction. General account of infection, Phytoimmunology. Applications of
microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control in air,
soil and water.
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A D V E R T I S E M E N T
Important plant diseases caused by
viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes. Mode of infection and
dissemination. Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence.
Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins.
Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes-structure
and reproduction from evolutonary viewpoint. Distribution of Cryptogams in India
and their economic potential.
3. Phanerogams: Gymnosperms:
Concept of Progymonosperms. Classification
and distribution of Gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Coniferrals and
Gnetales, their structures and reproduction. General account of Cycadofilicales,
Bennettitales and Cordaitales.
Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology
Comparative account of various systems of
Angiosperm Classiification. Study of angiospermic families–Magnoliaceae,
Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae (Cruci-ferae), Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae,
Malvaceaie, Dipterocar-paceae, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), Asclepiadaceae,
Verbenaceae, Solana-ceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae (Composite),
Poaceae (Gramineae), Arecaceae (Palmae), Liliaceae, Musaceae, Orchidaceae.
Stomata and their types. Anomalous
secondary growth, Anatomy of C 3 and C 4 plants.
Development of male and female
gametophytes, pollination, fertilization. Endosperm–its development and
function. Patterns of embryo development. Polyembryony, apoxmix, Applications of
4. Plant Utility and Exploitation:
Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov's
centres of origin. Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices,
beverages, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes.
Latex, cellulose Starch and their
products. Perfumery. Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context. Energy
plantation. Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.
Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and
differentiation. Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and
1. Cell Biology:
Techniques of Cell Biology. Prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells -structural and ultrastructural details. Structure and function
of extracellular matrix or ECM (cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane
transport and vesicular transport. Structure and function of cell organelles
(chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes,
hydrogenosome). Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex. Chromatin and
nucleosome. Cell signalling and cell receptors. Signal transduction (G-1
proteins, etc.). Mitosis and meisdosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical
and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance. Study of
polytene, lampbrush and B-chromosomes–structure, behaviour and significance.
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and
Evolution: Development of
genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles). Quantitative genetics
and multiple factors. Linkage and crossing over–methods of gene mapping
including molecular maps (idea of mapping function). Sex chromosomes and
sexlinked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex
differentiation. Mutation (biochemical and molecular basis). Cytoplasmic
inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility). Prions
and prion hypothesis.
Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids
and protines. Genetic code and regulation of gene expression. Multigene
Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and
theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.
3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and
Biostatistics: Methods of plant
breeding -- introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass
selection, bulk method). Male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixis
in plant breeding. Micropropagation and genetic engineering–methods of transfer
of genes and transgenic crops; development and use of molecular markers in plant
Standard deviation and coefficient of
variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square tests).
Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson distributions).
Correlation and regression.
4. Physiology and Biochemistry:
Water relations, Mineral nutrition and
ion transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis–photochemical reactions,
photophosphorylation and carbon pathways including C pathway (photorespiration),
C, C and CAM pathways. Respiraion (anaerobic and aerobic, including
fermentation-electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation.
Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen
metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes, energy transfer and energy conservation.
Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial
pigments and phytochrome). Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization,
senescence. Growth substances-their chemical nature, role and applications in
agri-horticulture, growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat,
water, salinity, metal). Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and
germination of seed. Fruit ripening -- its molecular basis and manipulation.
5. Ecology and Plant Geography:
Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of
community. Plant succession. Concepts of biosphere. Ecosystems and their
conservation. Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation).
Forest types of India -- afforestation,
deforestation and social forestry. Endangered plants, endemism and Red Data
Books. Biodiversity. Convention of Biological Diversity, Sovereign Rights and
Intellectual Property Rights. Biogeochemical cyeles. Global warming.